The history of bead making in Venice dates back to the times of Marco Polo. It was during those times when he returned from Asia with the beads of Asia. Both in Murano and Venice, the beading industry mostly employed women. When you look at the pictures of bead making in Venice in the 20th century, you can mostly see women working with beads while caring for their children. Until the 1930s, the conterie industry which is also known as the seed bead industry sustained the glass industry of Venice. During the World War, the people of Venice did not have enough time to build up the industry, but after 1930s, as many as thirty companies can be seen throughout Venice which makes art beads and employs hundreds of women.Venetian art beads are quite popular today. Here is a brief introduction for people who are looking to find out information on Venetian art beads.These days, most of the Venetian art beads are made on copper mandrels. It was in 1920 when the Moretti family introduced the copper mandrel in Murano. This was introduced as a cost effective art bead making technique in the industry. Before the introduction of copper mandrels, art beads were made by using metal mandrels which were coated with white paste. In those days, this technique was regarded as revolutionary because it did not require any kind of preparation and there were also no laws related to the environment.Today, the Venetian beads are quite expensive. There are many factors which contribute to the high price of the beads. Firstly, it is the cost of labor. Secondly, it is the availability and desirability of the item. In Venice, beads are handmade and there are just a few which can be made in a day. On the other hand, in Czech Republic, these are made by machines in factories and therefore the price is also not that expensive as compared to in Venice.Handmade Venetian beads are all different. No two beads are exactly the same. They differ in size as well as in shape. Machine made beads on the other hand are all the same. The variations that can be seen in hand made art beads are not imperfections. It is simply that they have been made by hand.Some of the Venetian art beads are also known as lampwork beads. The name ‘lampwork’ is given because the beads are made over a flame. Flame is used to melt the glass and allow the glass to take the form of the beads. These days, natural gas is used to generate the heat that is required in making lampwork beads.
Are luxury hotels becoming fine art spaces?Art has been a part of the hospitality industry for a very long time now. Hoteliers have often had to embrace creative strategies to make a hotel standout. By placing interesting and eye-catching artwork throughout the hotel, they’ve offered an exclusive experience to their clientele.Artwork helps build the identity of a hotel and offers a superior aesthetic experience by creating inspiring and stimulating ambience. While the smaller accommodation options prefer cost efficiency and core amenities, artwork is almost integral to luxury, boutique, and design hotels.The Need for ArtArtwork is a representation of the society because they served both as functional and symbolic elements. While some may say that art is a display of their ethnic sophistication, for some it may be more of an individualistic expression. As a functional element, artwork is utilized for psychological and healing purposes, for social causes, and even as a mode of communication. Personally, they connect people to their roots or the broader human condition. Artwork also evokes curiosity, interest and provides an exuberant experience.Elevating the Style of Hotels through ArtworkCurating art for a hotel is often done by the hoteliers themselves, and, for this reason, it often reflects their values, creativity and the theme they are tying display. There is a separate budget earmarked for this purpose, and even though the investment in art is limited, it has given rise to different types of marketing strategies for hoteliers.Use of paintings, sculptures or creative features in hotels, is without a doubt an effective way to revamp its look without investing in the structural changes, which could prove to be more expensive and time-consuming. Hoteliers who are experienced often say that simple changes in the color of the walls or the readjustment of the furniture can visually expand the room by as much as a feet. In fact the rooms that have framed artwork by famous painters are more expensive than others.Integrating Artistic Communities and Galleries with HotelsFamous luxury hotels are generally aided by the artistic community for new and exciting artworks. This helps hotels remain up to date with the latest trends while artists get a canvas to showcase their talents. It is a collaboration that is beneficial for both parties. As quoted by Paul Morris, the famous host of numerous international art fairs, including the Armory Show in New York City, “Hotels really can’t get away with putting mallard prints on the wall anymore. Therefore they need to tap into the artistic communities for help.”Independent art consultants and interior designers are also known to frequently collaborate hotels. Not only do they help define the look of the property, they are able to source art locally from the best talent and get it at a great bargain. With the help of interior designers and consultants, hoteliers are able to achieve new heights in creativity.Hotels That Have Brilliantly Integrated ArtIn these times, art has become fundamental to a hotel instead of just being ornamental or an element of its design. As a result, hoteliers are inspired to think outside of the box and curate art in the most exquisite and unexpected ways possible.Take for instance, the typical room at the Thompson LES hotel in Manhattan, which has an industrial-chic loft with exposed concrete columns and floor to ceiling windows. But what really catches your eye in the room is the artwork that hangs above the bed. It is a giant light box inside which there is a photo of a tree from photographer Lee Friedlander’s ‘Apples & Olives’ series. Stunning as the installation is, it also perfectly complements the organic setting of the room.In the past decade, hotels like the Wynn Las Vegas, Chambers in Minneapolis, the Sagamore in Miami Beach and the Grand Bohemian Hotel in Orlando have all displayed wide-ranging collections of art. The Gramercy Park Hotel, after being refurbished, has high-caliber artwork on display. In fact, the Museum of Modern Art is known to have taken a tour group to the hotel. I would call that high praise indeed!Abstract artist Lynette Shaw painted a series of eight serene, textured canvases as large as eight feet across for the lobby and restaurant at the Wyvern Hotel in Las Vegas. Today the artwork is the most attractive quality of the hotel. Other hotels with famous artwork include the Ace Hotel in New York with four art-centric properties. The Pod Hotel in New York also features frameless art. J. M. Rizzi, the artist, has painted city scenes and abstract shapes directly on to the walls of the lobby and the corridors.Most hotels commission and collect art that bring out the elements of the city inside the hotels. In some cases, they create a visual record of the rapidly developing neighborhood. For example in South Miami, the owner Michael Achenbaum commissioned Deborah Anderson, a London-based multimedia artist to shoot some of the area’s Art Deco architecture and also staged shots of tattooed models with ’50s hair and clothing. The photographer finally compiled 300 photographs, which were made into the 2,800 prints to be hung throughout the Gansevoort South.Art in Indian HotelsIf you’re wondering where India stands on incorporating art in the hospitality industry, we have some stellar examples of our own. And why not! Indians have a reputation for being artistically inclined and we have some of the most beautiful examples of architecture in the world. There’s absolutely no way that we’d be left behind when showcasing artistic talent on the walls of our hotels.Take for example the Falaknuma Palace in Hyderabad. In a land that’s famous for the creative sensibilities of the Nizams, the hotel does justice to its legacy and heritage. Falaknuma’s frescoed ceilings, carved furniture, and Venetian chandeliers have art aficionados in throes of ecstasy. The library in the hotel is a replica of the Windsor Castle in U.K. and is home to 6,000 books. You’re free to take a tour of the Falaknuma Palace accompanied by the hotel’s historian, who takes you through a trip back in time as he regales you with stories from days gone by.Yet another name that pops to mind is the ITC Maurya in the capital of India. As soon as you enter the hotel’s lobby, you’re greeted by the stunning visual spectacle that is Krishen Khanna’s ‘The Great Procession’ – a rich depiction of the vibrant life in India. But your artistic experience doesn’t end here. There are other exemplary works scattered around the hotel, including Tyeb Mehta’s ‘Bull in the Landscape’ painting and AR Ramachandran’s Ashoka ‘After Kalinga War’ – a sculpture etched with Ashoka’s anti-war inscriptions in Devanagri.There is no end to instances of brilliant exhibition of art in hotels. It is significant to their identity and being. In fact artists consider it an achievement to have their paintings hang at famous hotel chains. The mélange of art in hotels is what makes them an aspirational place where people want to spend their holidays. And in many cases, it forms an intrinsic part of the memories that a traveler carries back with him when he comes away from the hotel.
Let us start with some figures and facts:(a) The global art market is worth about US$ 40 billion (Rs 1,70,000 crore).(b) The Indian art market is worth more than US$ 0.24 billion (Rs 1,000 crore).(c) The Indian art market has grown from US$ 2 million to a US$ 400 million market over the last seven years.(d) From the benchmark year 2003, the Indian art market is growing at an average rate of between 20-30 per cent an year.(e) A recent report by Fortune claims that the Indian art market has risen over 485 per cent in the last ten years, making it the fourth most positive art market in the world.(f) Other than the auction houses Sotheby’s and Christie’s, about ten galleries in New York, London and Singapore – added to the hundreds of galleries in Delhi, Mumbai and Kolkata – are now dealing regularly and exclusively with Indian art.(g) Work by an Indian artist that sold in the late 1980s for perhaps $2,500 can now fetch more than $1 million.(h) The average earning of a resident Indian is US$ 440 per year (Rs. 1,727 per month)There is a phrase floating around in the Indian artistic community, especially in the hangout joints of young artists, which someway reflects the present status of the contemporary art scene in India. The phrase is that the artist who cannot sell his /her work today will never be able to sell any work in their entire lifetime. The meaning is transparent enough. The present Indian art market has achieved a huge growth and it is not showing any reverse trend even after record inflation figures has hit the Indian economy. According to the Director of Saffron Art Minal Vazirani, the buyers who purchases Indian art today is different from a common buyer of general commodities because their money comes from accumulated wealth, not from earnings. Therefore, the present high inflation does not affect their purchase power.This primarily money driven art scene is breeding a different class of artists today. To gain the highest mileage of the time, these artists are producing their art fast, without having a genuine artistic credo, trying to compete with their contemporaries who may have recently succeeded to sell his/her art for a generous amount. There is a second trend of faking the visual imagination of a well-reputed and worthy senior artist as low-key buyers and galleries prefer these dummy works because they are available cheap. The third is the crudest: just forge an artwork. Commercial galleries are mainly interested in turnover of sales. They could be selling anything for profit.The prices of young artists had shot up too much and too fast. Indeed, for the bubbly young geniuses, quietly breeding in the dark chambers of the various art schools of this country this is a damn good time. They can earn easy money now by doodling anything on paper or canvas, without much of the efforts their seniors had put in their early days. Today there is a class of stupid buyers having little of no knowledge about what they are buying but are assuming that the value of their purchases will be high within a short time.However, they can make very little distinction between a good and a mediocre art; to distinguishing a fine art and a mere decoration piece is also difficult for them. They are unaware to the general art history of India, may not even know the name of pioneers like Abanindranath Tagore or Nandalal Bose. Most of them are targeting art like real estate or stocks with an additional possibility of the glorifying opportunity to be able to enter the upper stratum of the society. The media is also part of the hype and actively been promoting this notion of investment and huge percentages of yearly returns. The leading Indian media group ABP Ltd is already running an art business house, CIMA from the year 1993 for the similar purpose.The price of Indian modern art, broadly defined as art created between 1947-1970 has previously fetched higher prices than the contemporary art but the scenario has changed very fast in the last few years. The prices of the artworks of some of the contemporary younger artists are getting closer to their worthy masters. Largely Indian collectors or collectors of Indian origin had fueled the boom for modern Indian art. On the contemporary part, the buyers are primarily resident Indians but also a new crop of non-Indian buyers are fuelled the sales.But there is another problem and this is a genuine one. Amin Jaffer, Christie’s International Director of Asian Art, recently commented in an interview (Seminar, October 2007) that, “…artists may be pushed to create works because they have received commercial success and cease to take chances or risks once they have figured a formula and that is when you start to see works being churned out to cater to a large demand.” This observation by someone like Jaffer establishes the trendy vendor nature of the successful living artists. They deliberately stagnate just to keep themselves selling. They continue to fetch high price and are therefore reluctant to come out from this vicious circle once they had entered. The younger artists will obviously stick on the same path. It is very difficult now to find a maverick in this rotten time where money is spoiled the creative impulse. An artist must earn money in order to be able to live and work, but he must by no means live and work for the purpose of making money.Let us conclude with the observations of the distinguished artist and scholar K.G. Subramanyan:”…..in recent years in the so-called post-modern world, the old divisions have lost their influence or relevance. This is due to the forces released by the communication industry that cross-lace forms once chronologically or geographically separate. In a sense its techniques have changed even the basic nature of art practice, leading progressively towards collaboration and multi-media work and edging out the importance of individualised autography.This has put art on the production line and given the art object the profile of a commodity, be it a privileged commodity.On another side, our burgeoning economy has spawned a whole crowd of speculators who want to trade in this commodity through art galleries and auction houses in the same way as they trade in shares. They have generally no inkling of (or interest in) a work’s aesthetic merit; their main concern is their resale value. Even those among them who are more informed and sensitive prefer to keep mum and submit to the market trends. In the overall picture, the artists have a better deal. They are no more lean and hungry. They attend lavish parties and get featured in the social columns of dailies and periodicals.Is this part of the cultural resurgence we have been speaking of? Or what some of those path-breaking thinkers of pre-independent India had tried to visualise? Unfortunately not.”K. G. Subramanyan continues:”But the winds of change we are riding on do not seem to be taking us in that direction. But this is important. The new economic well-being of certain sections of our people who are willing to be cyber-slaves of some developed societies in a globalising world should not divert us from this main objective. Clerks and managers can move around but artists and culture workers need solid links with their root-space to produce works of authority and resonance.”Suggested Links:
Valuing art: The role of provenance and auction
Indian art paints a global picture
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India’s booming art market
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K. G. Subramanyan article
Paradox of Indian art
If you have a passion for the visual or dramatic arts, you could have an exciting career by studying arts management. Persons who choose to go into arts management assist in bringing the arts to more people by managing art organizations and institutions such as museums, galleries, and studios.Obtaining a minimum of a bachelor’s at a college or university usually completes preparation for an arts management career. Students who enter arts management programs should expect to obtain a solid background in business and economics, and learn about challenges and special issues confronting the world of the arts.The arts management graduate will work directly with artists, museums, and institutions to coordinate and develop programs that promote art, raise funds, handle finances, and implement art education and promotion programs. Some studio art majors may choose to carry double major in arts management in order to learn the business side of the arts in preparation for running their own studio or gallery.Students seeking admission to an arts management program should have adequate high school educational backgrounds. Some useful classes for the prospective college student include: speech and communication, accounting, advanced placement art history, business, dance, economics, music history, and theater arts.Many prestigious programs exist for the student to pursue art management. How should the student begin to find the best program? Start by evaluating the schools for which you meet the admission requirements. Then screen the schools to be certain that the institution is properly credentialed and accredited. Next, call the school and inquire about their connections within the art industry. Also inquire about the percentage of graduates who obtain job placements within the art industry following graduation. The percentage should be quite high.Location of the school is important when considering an art management program. The best opportunities will exist in cities and communities that have a strong focus on the arts. New York City, Chicago, Washington, D.C., London, and Paris immediately come to mind, but it is also possible to find great opportunities in other communities as well. Choose a location that you think that you would be comfortable with.It is vitally important for the art management student to make connections and network while they are pursuing their education. Most art management positions come by word or mouth, not by advertisement. Many positions are filled before the student graduates so that there is an almost seamless transition between college and beginning the job. Art professors are a great resource for networking as they usually have many connections and associations within the art world.Networking is fine, but that alone may not be enough to secure a coveted position. Your may need experience, but how do you obtain experience without having a job? An internship is the perfect solution to this dilemma, so make sure that your school offers an internship before graduation. In short, no one can tell you what program will be best for you, but by applying the tips that you have learned you can be assured that you will have the best possible chance in pursuing your career goals.